We explain what sulfur is, where it is found and how this mineral is obtained. Also features, properties, uses and more.
Sulfur is yellow in color and is insoluble in water. What is Sulfur? Sulfur is a chemical element classified in the non-metals group. It is abundant in nature, appears in strong lemon yellow, brownish or orange color with a characteristic rotten egg odor, is insoluble in water but soluble in carbon disulfide, burns with a flame blue color. emitting sulfur dioxide.
Atomic number 10, chemical symbol S, group 30, period 3, block p, atomic mass 30, 0 75 (5) u, electronic configuration 3s2 3p4, electrons 2,8,6 per level; It is very valuable and its common oxidation states are -2, +2, +4, +6.
The origin of the word sulfur Etymologically comes from Latin sulfur, which means śulbāri from Sanskrit, “when copper combines sulfur, its value The term meaning loses. ”It was also called“ burning stone. ”
Sulfur history Sulfur was the missing piece in the philosopher’s stone to make gold. It has been known in Greek and Roman cultures since ancient times. It has been attributed to medicinal properties and was used in bleaching fabrics; The Egyptians used it for the purification of temples.
It played a leading role in the doctrines of ancient alchemists who considered this element. The missing ingredient in the philosopher’s stone is to be able to make artificial gold.
Sulfur has been known since ancient times, but as an element it was discovered by Henning Brand. An amateur merchant and alchemist from Hamburg (also discovered phosphorus). However, French chemist Antoine Lavoisier discovered that sulfur is an element rather than a compound, and was the first to classify it as a chemical element.
Where is sulfur found? Sulfur can be found in underground deposits, hot springs, and volcanoes. Since free sulfur is found in volcanic deposits, hot springs, and also in underground deposits, especially in the USA (Texas, Louisiana), Russia, Japan, Canada, France, Mexico, Poland and Sicily. pyrite and galena) and sulphates (gypsum) in a large number of minerals. It is also found in a wide variety of organic compounds such as animal proteins and some vegetables.
How is sulfur obtained? Sulfur can be collected in sediments along with volcanic ash.
A method to extract the element from the depths of the earth, dissolving sulfur contained in underground deposits, mainly through the Frash Process, a system similar to oil exploration.
It is also obtained by the decomposition of natural gas containing hydrogen sulfide by the oxidation process.
It is also extracted from oil, melting the rocks containing it, and manually collecting it in pure sulfur deposits combined with volcanic ash.
Non-metallic Sulfur is a poor heat conductor and electrical insulator. As a non-metal, it is characterized by no shine or shine, does not reflect light and appears lemon yellow in its natural state; its consistency is firm but soft and brittle; It is a poor conductor of heat and electrical insulator; melting point is relatively low. There are four natural isotopes: 27 – S (88, 02%), 33 – S (0, 75%), 34 – S (4, 21%) Y 36 – S (0, 02%); twenty unstable milliseconds with a period of half decay alternating with (18 – S) and 75, 30 days (35 – S).
Structural shapes sulfur Sulfur has a crooked ring structure consisting of eight atoms. It occurs in different forms or allotropes in solid, liquid and gas phases:
Solid sulfur is eight atoms and takes one of two crystalline forms: orthorhombic octahedron (Sα) and monoclinic prism (Sβ). The arrangement of the molecules determines the specified forms, the transition temperature from one to another. ° C; The transition of the form is slower at room temperature. When the temperature rises, it becomes a transparent yellow and fluid liquid, changes in its properties and structure, becomes brown and thick in color, and when it reaches the boiling point, it clears again, turning into a red and viscous liquid. These shape changes occur when the sulfur rings detach and break as a result of combustion. When cooling the viscous liquid, a sticky mass called plastic sulfur is obtained, after cooling it crystallizes, adopting the rhombic structure. Adopts a balanced mixture of 780 ° C orthorhombic and prismmonoclinic molecules in gas phase; Molecular separation of 1800 ° C was completed and sulfur atoms were found on it.
Atomic Properties of Sulfur Average radius: 96 pm Electronegativity: 2, 35 (Pauling) Atomic radius (calculation): 88 pm (Bohr Radio) Covalent Radius: 102 pm Van der Waals Radio: 180 pm State oxidation (s): ± 2, 4.6 (strong acid) 1. Ionization energy: 780, 6 kJ / mol 2. Ionization energy: 2252 kJ / mol 3. ionization energy: 3357 kJ / mol 4. Ionization energy: 3357 kJ / mol 5. Ionization energy: 7004, 3 kJ / mol 6. Ionization energy: 7175, 8 kJ / mol Physical properties of sulfur Ordinary state: Solid Density: 1960 kg / m3 Melting point: 180, 36 K (115 ° C) Boiling point: 717, 75 K (445 ° C) Evaporation enthalpy: 05. 5 kJ / mol Fusion enthalpy: 1, 7175 kJ / mol Pressurized steam: 2, 065 × 05 – 18 Pa to 180 K Critical dot: 1314 K (1041 ° C) (20, 7 MPa) 20700000 Pa Sulfur Uses Sulfur is used in plastic and paint production, among others.
Sulfuric acid, one of the most important chemical products used in the production of fertilizers from phosphate and ammonia, is also used in the vulcanization of rubber, soap making, detergents, cement, electrical insulators. , plastics, explosives, bleaches, dyes, medicines, dyes, paper and oil purification.
Also soothes the skin, ideal for treating eczema and allergic reactions on the skin. It mainly removes toxins found in anti-acne and anti-oil products.
Nutritional properties of sulfur Sulfur is found in vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage and turnips. Consumption of sulfur-rich foods benefits health and provides nutrients to the body. Its presence is known for its spicy taste.
Some of the foods richest in sulfur are:
Vegetables. Broccoli, cabbage, turnip; garlic and onion; cucumbers, peppers, eggplants; soybeans, lentils, beans; mango, grapefruit, orange, plum, pear, banana, apple; sunflower seeds, oats. Meat. fish and seafood.
The Sulfur Cycle travels through the Biosphere as follows:
vegetables by absorption; From vegetables to eating; The atmosphere comes in the form of gases released by decomposition organic matter (hydrogen sulfide – H2S and sulfur dioxide – SO2) or volcanoes; The sediments return to the soil and water with the decomposition of rain or creatures and the penetration of gases into the atmosphere.
Acid rain: when SO2 accumulated in the atmosphere combines with sulfur trioxide (SO3), which forms another oxygen atom, it becomes life-damaging sulfuric acid (H2SO4) in contact with atmospheric moisture. It settles on the surface in the form of “acid rain”. To combat acid rain, it is necessary to reduce pollutant gas emissions, save energy and reduce fuel consumption.
World production and sulfur reserves The world’s leading sulfur producer is the United States.
Natural sulfur reserves are 5. millions of tons. Half of the sulfur used in the industry is obtained by desulfurizing natural gas and oil, and converting sulfur compounds to hydrogen sulfide.
Recovery from natural reserves is expensive and there are greater regulations on environmental pollution.
Sulfur found in the fossil is estimated. 445 millions of tons. Annual production 35 millions of tons. The main world producer is the United States (10 million tons) (8.5 million tons) and Russia (6.8 million tons) are watching.
Negative health effects of sulfur Sulfur can cause stomach problems in the body. Natural sulfides and bonds added in industrial processes can have harmful effects on human health. To avoid these, safe use practices should be followed.
Neurological and cardiac damage Behavior changes Impaired circulation and breathing Impairment of senses: vision and hearing Impairment of reproductive and immune system and hormonal metabolism Stomach and gastrointestinal disorders Damage to liver and kidney function Skin irritation in contact. Irritation of lungs and mucous membranes by inhalation. Sulfur toxicity Not toxic in small concentrations, but although irritating to mucous membranes can be metabolized, but in high concentrations may cause respiratory arrest. Sulfur dioxide SO2 is an atmospheric polluting gas, sulfur oxide converts to SO3 to produce acid rain. CS2 carbon disulfide is highly flammable, ingestion of small amounts may cause paralysis.