Continuity of the Middle Stone Age into the Holocene

Abstract

The African Middle Stone Age (MSA, sometimes thought-about to span ca. 300–30 thousand years in the past [ka]), represents our species’ first and most lasting cultural section. Although the MSA to Later Stone Age (LSA) transition is thought to have had a level of spatial and temporal variability, latest research have implied that in some areas, the MSA continued properly past 30 ka. Here we report two new websites in Senegal that date the tip of the MSA to round 11 ka, the youngest but documented MSA in Africa. This exhibits that this cultural section continued into the Holocene. These outcomes spotlight vital spatial and temporal cultural variability within the African Late Pleistocene, according to genomic and palaeoanthropological hypotheses that vital, long-standing inter-group cultural variations formed the later levels of human evolution in Africa.

Introduction

The African Middle Stone Age (MSA) is a cultural section characterised by options comparable to a deal with ready core lithic know-how, hafting, and long-distance alternate, that emerged synchronously with the organic look of our species, Homo sapiens1,2,3,4,5 (see Supplementary Materials [SM]). Together with these traits, the spatial and temporal distribution of the MSA throughout Africa between ca. 300–30 ka is seen as being comparatively homogenous, and the time period has additionally been used as a chronological marker (e.g.,6). While behavioural and cultural complexity is more and more acknowledged within the MSA (e.g.,1,2,3,4,5), the transition to the Later Stone Age (LSA), with options comparable to miniaturized lithic know-how and ostrich eggshell beads, is commonly seen as a seminal turning level in human historical past and the institution of the primary societies analogous to these characterizing latest people7,8,

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