What makes water so important is that it is a vital substance that cannot be substituted for humans. It is for this reason that the qualitative and quantitative disadvantages that occur in water resources today have made it an important element of today’s discussions on environmental problems. Water resources are limited and subject to many human-induced adverse effects. Adding to the fact that people do not already have access to healthy water, as well as privatization movements caused by the political conjuncture in recent years, the issue of whether water can be privatized has become a matter in itself. The issue of the right to water, which would later become an important place in the literature, began to be voiced by non-governmental organizations, public opinion and scientists, especially from this point of view.The right of people to access drinkable and economically viable water is called the right to water. In this regard, it can be said that the right to water has two legs: healthy and economic. We can say that the privatization discussions are generally shaped by the economic dimension of the right to water. On the other hand, the pillar of this right to access healthy water is relatively more in the background of the privatization debate. In this regard, we can say that the debate on the right to water is mainly based on the economic value of water or the size of its economic availability. As for access to healthy water, we can be seen as a more complex area. When a public value is attributed to water, it can present problems such as overuse and inability to fund itself. In order to minimize pressure on Water Resources and ensure that access to water is transferred to us and subsequent generations, it may be useful to attribute an ethical value to it an ethical view of water can allow it to understand the value of water resources for all living and inanimate beings and to be used by future generations. The aim of this study is to be able to evaluate the solution of the water problem within the water right and to add ethics and water ethics awareness to this concept.
Water is vital for living things. From the smallest living organism to the largest living being, it is water that sustains all biological life and all human activities. Water, which covers 70% of our world, is also a significant part of our body. But about 0.3% of the water resources on earth are usable and drinkable.
80 countries, which account for 40% of the world’s population, are already suffering from water shortages. Water use doubled between 1940 and 1980. The need for water is increasing every day as the population increases rapidly and water resources remain constant. The volume of available water in the world is 141 billion m3 species. This amount is 3 km from the Earth’s surface. it is large enough to wrap in a thick layer.
98% of this water is found in the oceans and inland seas, but because it is salty, it is not suitable for use as drinking water, irrigation and industrial use. Only 2.5% of the world’s water is fresh water. 87% of this is found in glaciers, soil, atmosphere, groundwater and is unusable.
Human beings supply their water needs from surface waters and ground water sources. The most important source of fresh water is precipitation. Global annual precipitation is 500 thousand m3, with the same amount of precipitation falling to the earth every year.
In our country, fresh water resources are quite limited and only respond to the need.Usable water potential is 110 billion m3, of which 16% is consumed in drinking and using, 72% in agricultural irrigation and 12% in industry.
Water use per capita is directly proportional to the level of development of society. Although this rate is quite high in developed countries, it is low in developing countries. (1692 m3 in the US, 726 m3 in Europe, 244m in Africa”species.)
The average annual rainfall in the world is 1000 mm, and the average annual rainfall is 643 mm. dir. Turkey was among the countries with water scarcity, although not as rapid population growth, pollution, and the average annual rainfall is lower than the world average; and more careful use of existing resources requires that the necessary measures be taken immediately against contamination.
If There Was No Water
It is one of the most abundant substances on earth and is the basis of life. If it wasn’t for water, there would be no life. Seas and oceans cover about seven-tenths of the Earth; there is water in the soil, atmosphere, and all living beings. About two-thirds of the human body consists of water; in addition, most of the food, especially vegetables and fruits, is also water.
The heat of the sun causes evaporation on the surface of seawater, and the water evaporates and other minerals remain, and these minerals mix with the water below. That’s why the seas are much saltier than the rivers that spill here.in order for drinking water to be easily drunk, the water must also contain certain amounts of dissolved gases and minerals.
The existence of life on earth depends on water. Solar heat evaporates water; the evaporated water is clustered in the atmosphere in clouds formed by droplets. When these masses reach a sufficient size, they descend to the earth in the form of rain, hail or snow and allow life to last. This is called precipitation; the processing of water into the soil also occurs in this process. Plants absorb water from the soil and leave a certain part of it in the atmosphere again as a result of a process called sweating. Evaporation, precipitation and perspiration form the water cycle.
Rain and flowing waters change the Earth over time. With the help of giant dams, some of the water can be held before it is poured into the sea. By using the water collected in these artificial warehouses, Water types used for electricity generation can be operated, and the water requirements of towns and cities can be met.
Information About Water
Did you know that none of the other 63 celestial bodies in the solar system has water, the basic condition of life? However, most of the Earth is covered with water. Oceans and seas make up a total of three-quarters of the Earth’s surface. On the other hand, there are countless lakes and rivers on land. The snow covering the peaks of the high mountains is the frozen state of the water. A significant portion of the water on Earth is also in the sky; each of the clouds contains thousands, sometimes millions of tons of water. Some of these waters also land in drops from time to time, that is, rain. There is also a certain amount of water vapor in the air that you are breathing now.
Rains, seas, rivers, streams, oceans, potable water that flows when you turn on the tap… people are so used to the existence of water that they perhaps never think about the importance of most of the Earth being covered with water. However, water is indeed a very rare composition in space. For this reason, it is extremely important that all known celestial bodies contain only water on earth, and that these waters are drinkable. It is impossible for a life without water to exist.
Water is a substance created for life with all its physical and chemical properties, specially designed to be the foundation of life. Millions of living species on earth continue their lives thanks to water, and the balances necessary for life also maintain their continuity thanks to the presence of water.
Amazing Properties Of Water
Especially heat-related (thermal) properties of water play a major role in the continuity of living life on earth. All known liquids shrink as their temperature drops, losing volume. As the volume decreases, the density increases, and thus the cold parts become heavier. For this reason, the solid states of liquid substances are heavier than their liquid states. But water, unlike all known liquids, contracts until it drops to a certain temperature (+ 4°C), then suddenly begins to expand. And when it freezes, it expands even more. For this reason, the solid state of water is lighter than the liquid state. In other words, ICE actually floats above the water, while it should sink to the bottom of the water according to the rules of “normal” physics.This feature of water is very important for the seas on earth. If it were not for this feature, that is, if the ice did not swim above the water, a very large part of the water on earth would completely freeze, there would be no life left in the lakes and seas. When ice melts or water evaporates, heat is drawn around it. When the opposite occurs, heat is given out. This is the concept known as” latent heat”. All liquids have hidden temperatures. But the latent heat of water can be considered the highest of all known liquids. In addition, the “thermal capacity” of water, that is, the amount of heat needed to increase the temperature of water by one degree, is higher than a very large part of other known liquids. The fact that the latent heat and thermal capacity of water are very high compared to other liquids also allows the seas to heat up and cool down later than on land. For this reason, on earth, the temperature differences on land are up to 140°C between the warmest place and the coldest place, while the temperature differences of the seas range from 15-20°C at most. The same situation is also experienced in the awareness of heat between day and night. The difference between day and night on land is up to 20-30°C in arid environments, while in the seas there is a temperature difference of no more than a few degrees. Not only the seas, but also the water vapor in the atmosphere provide a very great balance. As a result, the difference in heat between day and night is too much in deserts where there is very little water vapor, and much less in places where there is a marine climate.
In addition, the thermal conductivity of water, that is, its ability to conduct heat, is also at least four times higher than any other known liquid. The thermal conductivity of ice and snow is low. This feature of water also functions very important. The ice makes the cold in the air very rare to the layer of water below it. So even if the air outside finds -50°C, the ice sheet above the sea does not exceed 1-2 meters. Seals, penguins and other arctic animals can thus pierce the ice above the sea and reach the water below.
Thanks to these unique thermal properties of water, the temperature difference between winter and summer or day and night always remains at a limit that humans and other creatures can withstand. If the amount of water on earth was less than on land, the difference between night and day temperatures would increase greatly, most of the land would turn into desert, and life would become impossible, or at least very difficult. Let’s consider the existence of oceans. The oceans reflect less of the sun’s rays than on land, so they get more solar energy from land, but they distribute that heat in a more balanced way than on land. In this way, the oceans cool the warmer equatorial regions, preventing them from being extremely hot, heating the cold waters of the polar regions to be extremely cold and, as a result, completely freezing. What would it be like if?
What If The Water Acted “Normal”?
What if the water acted “normal”, like all other liquids, its density increased in parallel with the loss of heat, that is, the ice sank to the bottom of the water?
In this case, in the oceans, seas and lakes, the freeze would start from the bottom. The freezing, starting from Alltan, would continue upward, as there was no ice sheet on the surface to cut the cold. In this way, most of the lakes, seas and oceans on earth would become giant ice floes. Only a few feet of water would remain on the surface of the seas, and even if the air temperature increased, the ice at the bottom would never thaw. No creature could live in the seas of such a World.
In an ecological system where the seas are dead, the existence of land creatures could also not be possible. In short, Earth, if water had acted “normal”, would have been a dead planet. Why water does not behave” normally”, that is, why it suddenly begins to expand after contracting to 4°C, is a question that no one can answer. The properties of water, of which only a few examples are given here, show that this liquid was created specifically for human life.
Water is the source of life, perhaps the most important substance in the world. And do we consume enough of this substance, which we can tolerate for no more than three days? Here are 10 signs that you don’t drink enough water.
Water is defined as the source of life. 70% of the human body, more than ¾ of our planet, is made up of water. We even get a clue whether there is life on planets other than Earth by looking for a water source there. And as a water-dependent organism, do we consume it as much as our bodies need it? Here are 10 Signs Your body gives when you’re not consuming!
Your body’s reactions when you don’t drink enough water:
You Are Constantly Experiencing Dry Mouth
Your Skin Is Drier Than Other People
Current Dry Your Eyes
You Are Very Quiet
You Often Suffer From Joint Pains
Your Muscle Mass Has Recently Begun To Decline Nov.
Your Illnesses Last Longer Than Usual
You feel tired and lethargic
Your Stomach Is Constantly Embedded In
You Are Having Digestive Difficulties
1-You Experience Constant Dry Mouth
What happens if you don’t drink water?
Consuming water refreshes the secretions of the mucous membranes in the throat and mouth in a sense. In this way, your mouth remains regularly moist with saliva. If you have a constant dry throat, you should drink more water.
2-Your Skin Is Drier Than Other People
What happens if your skin dries?
Your skin is the largest organ in your body. Therefore, it consumes water seriously. If you do not consume enough water, then dryness will start on your skin. If you have noticed such a situation, you should definitely take precautions.
3 – You’re So Quiet
What happens if you’re too thirsty?
If your tongue and palate dry well as soon as you notice that you are thirsty, you are definitely drinking little water. Take a little more care of your body’s warnings and consume water, albeit little by little, at frequent intervals.
4-Dryness In Your Eyes
Yeah, drinking a little water makes your eyes dry. Without water, your eyes turn into a bowl of blood and you feel dry. If this condition lasts for a long time, your eyes may also be damaged. You’d better drink a lot of water.
5 – You Often Suffer From Joint Pain
80% of bone discs are water. This, in turn, is a guarantee that in the event of dehydration, the pain in your bones will begin. If you are constantly suffering from joint pain, this may be due to drinking little water.
6-Your Muscle Mass Has Recently Begun To Decrease Nov.
feeling tired and latergic
Muscles also carry large bodies of water. Drinking water before, during and after workouts benefits your muscles. In this way, your body provides a healthier working order.
7 – Your Diseases Last Longer Than Usual
Does water prevent disease
Drinking water allows you to constantly drain toxins from your body. Your organs are filtered, just like some machines. But if you don’t lubricate these machines enough, they start to stop working. What is oil for machine parts is water for our organs. If you do not consume enough water, the body turns to water in its internal source, and when you become sick, you will not recover for a long time.
8-you feel tired and lethargic
If your body becomes dehydrated, it begins to borrow the water it needs from your blood. This, in turn, reduces the oxygen level in the blood. A decrease in oxygen content in the blood causes insomnia and fatigue.
9 – Constantly Scraping Your Stomach
Thirst causes stomach scrapes and you feel hungry. This is why stomach scrapes, which cause night snacks, occur. Be sure to drink water when you notice this condition.
10 – You Are Experiencing Digestive Difficulties
Water and digestion
We’ve already mentioned that thirst benefits the mucus layer. But this condition does not only affect the throat and mouth, it affects the entire digestive system. Because the mucus layer is present in our stomach and in many parts of our bodies. If you are having digestive problems, experts recommend consuming more water.
Water and water properties
Water, which is the main element of life, is the most basic substance of need, other natural
unlike sources, outside of their economic value, today social and political purposes
it also appears as a commodity available for use in line. Definition of water
from quantitative and qualitative maintenance
examination, conducting a more detailed and comprehensive research in different branches of science
it’s important enough to require it. However, in relation to the theoretical framework of this study, water
a brief explanation of some related concepts will guide the research.
Emerging with the formation of the world and dating back to earlier than human history,
at the same time, water in a liquid state under normal temperature and pressure; each molecule is oxygen
it is a colorless, odorless and tasteless substance consisting of two hydrogen atoms. In other words, water,
a variety of substances covering two-thirds of the Earth, in the form of solutions or hangings in their composition
it is a liquid substance found . That nothing else can be replaced
as a natural resource, water is the most important element for human life after oxygen.
Isua in Greenland, which was first identified as the oldest rock on Earth
It was found in the rocks and the water inside the rocks in question was examined
It is understood to be 3.8 billion years old
As for water properties, not only on the living environment, but also on the inanimate environment
it’s a very effective substance. Formation of soil by physically breaking down rocks, inside
by dissolving substances, the soil becomes fertile, the emergence of plants, from the root
natural events such as the transport of necessary building blocks to leaves on branches and photosynthesis water
thanks to it, it happens. “Life began in water.”the proposition that water has on Earth
it’s a sign of the importance it is.
Water has a special importance, separate from all the resources on earth. To minibas
* It cannot be substituted, the life of other living things that create human life as much as human
in other words, it is one of the indispensable requirements. Hence the demand
* The use value is very high due to its non-substituted property.
* Due to rapid population growth, its demand is constantly increasing by diversifying.
* Water channels, dams from discovery to delivery to the end user,
it creates continuous service and employment with its treatment plants.
* Because it is an indispensable requirement of life in agriculture and animal husbandry
it is mandatory complement. From manufacturing, construction, mining to health,
as input at various stages of production, from transportation to energy production
• It is an energy source used in transportation and lighting as well as irrigation.
As it has importance in all aspects of life, water is the foundation that is most needed
element. The prevalence of areas of Use and the inability to replace the importance of water even more
it increases. But besides the disparity in the geographical distribution of Water Resources, every day
it is decreasing to the extent that it cannot meet the needs. It has vital, economic and
because of its strategic importance, water is the most discussed topic of today and the near future
it offers potential.
2) Water Resources On Earth
Because of the water covering the largest areas on Earth, the name “Blue Sphere” for the Earth is also
references Although 97.5% of the world is covered with water, but 2.5% of this water
are available. 2% of this limited amount is at the poles, 16 km thick
considering that it is found in ice floes, only 0.5% of the water
available (Ulusoy, 2007: 5). The scarcity of potable water today is the most
it’s one of the major problems. Despite the amount of water the Earth has, this water is large
some of it is salty, and its quantity is limited to meet human needs
it is the most concrete indication that greater difficulties may be encountered in the coming periods.
Converting salt water in oceans and seas to be used as drinking water
although their efforts are increasing day by day, the cost is very high by each country
it is far from an accepted method for now. Due to water shortage today
the condition of groundwater and batteries, whose use is becoming widespread, is more critical over time
Much more than the amount of water moving in the water cycle in the oceans
were collected. In other words, about 96.5% of the total earth’s water is in the oceans
. Water in the oceans is conducive for people to use
Sea, water that has a connection with the ocean, covers a large area and is usually salty
it’s a puddle. The seas cover 71% of the Earth’s surface. But sea water is average
Because it contains 3.5% salt, treatment methods that are still quite expensive are not applied
cannot be used as drinking water (www.bilim.org/forum). high salinity
treatment of seawater that is not suitable for use as drinking water
their methods are also highly costly. But in recent years it has started to become widespread. Worldwide
According to 1994 data from Desalination Research and Technology Survey; salt treatment in the world
as of 1992, the total capacity of the facilities is 15.6 million cubic meters per day.
24.4% of capacity in Saudi Arabia, 10.6% in the United Arab Emirates, 9.1 %
In Kuwait, 15.2% in the United States, 4.1% in Japan, the rest %
36.6 of them are scattered in various countries. In addition, Prof.Dr.Zafer Ayvaz
salt water treatment in the state of California in the United States
significant initiatives have been carried out, but the cost of this is to buy water again
it is desirable to load into fields. In the state of California, located on the coast of the Great Ocean
36 million people live today. This figure will reach 48 million by 2030
references For these 12 million people added to the population, 4 million cubic meters more per day
water supply will be required. This increased need for water with existing water resources, water savings or
it is not possible to meet the reuse of treated water. California
The Water Authority plans to close this gap by treating brackish waters and seawater. In 2002
it was decided to allocate $ 50 million for treatment plants, this resource
half of the 24 projects proposed in 2005 and the remaining half of the 23 awarded in 2006
has been allocated to the project. More than half of the support amount in 2006 was seawater
it is devoted to projects related to purification. Feasibility studies with this support, applied troubleshooting
projects were attempted to be realized. Ultimately, total water needs by 2020
Establishment of at least 20 Saltwater treatment plants that will provide 10%, 2 by 2030
it is aimed to reach a treatment capacity of million cubic meters. Water in the next 5 years
its price is expected to increase by around 5-10%. Also communicating new water resources
an increase of 10-20 cents will be calculated by the pumps and culverts to be used.
So California residents pay 70-90 cents per cubic meter of water in 2012
will have to. As can be seen, in an environment that can qualify as a water market
costs are again being charged to buyers, and those who need water face accepting this cost
it’s being left across.
Stagnant water accumulated in pit areas on rocks and without a specific flow
their mass is called a lake. Lakes can be found individually as well as more than one side by side.
The regions where the lakes are located side by side are called The Lakes region. Lakes, rainfall waters, streams and
it is fed by sources. The water levels of the lakes vary depending on nutrition.
Lakes on earth, their size, depth, temperature and salinity are variable
Water suitable for use as drinking water in lakes
they’re not sources.
Collecting and collecting water in beds of different sizes on Earth
the shape formed as a result of water flowing through the bed is called a stream
Streams, everywhere not only for people, but also for the life of all other living things
it is also important for its continuity. Streams are not just for entertainment purposes by people,
more importantly, drinking and potable water, agricultural irrigation, electricity generation, waste
it is used for removal, transportation of commercial goods and food production purposes
. Streams are important aquatic environments for all kinds of plants and animals.
Polar regions and high mountains in the upper parts of the snow left without melting
the forms of nature it forms are called glaciers. Today, about 10% of the world is covered by glaciers.
The area of influence of glaciers is mostly near the poles. Usually glaciers, ice and snow
it is freshwater stored frozen in its fields. Ice Hills seen on Earth; ice, snow
and freshwater stored in glaciers over a long period of time is part of the global water cycle
Due to the spread of global warming, the melting rate of glaciers
because of this melting, people’s habitats have been compromised.
As a result of continued melting, in later times the seas overflow and many
the settlement is expected to be flooded. This situation only settlements
it also threatens agricultural areas.
f) snow and rainwater
Under the influence of sunlight, water on Earth evaporates and becomes a gas, and
it’s rising. Water vapor, which cools as it rises and its pressure decreases, leads to dust particles in the air
by clinging to it, it turns into a drop of water and their weight increases. When you reach enough weight
it begins to fall to the ground under the influence of gravity and returns to the earth as rain.